These interventions are coordinated by a dedicated task force directly lead by the Presidency of the Council of Ministers. A double level of attention — local and regional — was maintained also in the choice of interlocutors to involve, especially with respect to institutional representatives . This is even more important when considering that many of these initiatives cannot be reduced to the sole cultural production, but acts also as a community work, sometimes even as a substitute for public action. In fact, as we have just seen, seemingly independent policies, such as promoting entrepreneurship among youngsters, and defining the uses of public properties, if not designed and realized with a certain degree of synergy hardly contribute to activate urban regeneration processes and culture-based development. This joint action is meant to strengthen the institutional capacity of MiBACT at national and regional level and provides capacity building opportunities to local institutions and cultural practitioners. From the eight thematic groups gathering the many urban associations of Taranto, the Committee representatives identified a set of priority actions. When a multi-level governance is involved, as in Taranto where urban decision making is intertwined with the regional and even national level, the sustainability of locally developed projects require a higher institutional support, also known as up-scaling Garcia et al.
Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management, 3 1. The current situation is an old town with historical buildings in a state of neglect despite various programs and urban renewal initiatives, including URBAN II Programme Yet the interaction with local stakeholders has revealed an active community and the presence of numerous cultural initiatives that can initiate participatory and inclusive development paths around the recovery of the city and the sea. Indeed, as we have seen in the case of the regional measures bogged down by the discrepancy of local interventions, the effectiveness of policies does not depend exclusively on the single institutions, whether central or local. Ensuring the continuity of cultural and social activities is crucial to safeguard a pool of competences and to give an encouraging signal to young artists and cultural entrepreneurs on the one hand and to realize a culture-driven agenda for the development of Taranto on the other. The second part introduces the case study of Taranto not only with respect to the industrial development, that has strongly affected the urban organization and the social fabric of this city, but also considering the institutional perspective hampering the elaboration of an alternative vision. Such a methodological perspective has proved to be fruitful to investigate a complex urban area as it is the case of Taranto where manifold visions and narratives characterize its past and are tracing possible scenarios. Although Apulia overall is still one of the most dynamic  areas among the southern Italian regions Symbola
Such generalization is dangerous because it underestimates the fact that among the so-called CCI, most are micro-businesses that are struggling to stay on the market and that count a mortality rate higher than the average of other sectors. That economic model has affected the whole territory so deeply that any conversion process would be highly complex and challenging, not only under a perspective of economic growth, but also as far as environment, culture and vision are concerned.
This study on the creative and cultural potential embedded in Taranto highlights the need of situated analysis and more refined analytical tools to evaluate qualitative aspects concerning the spillovers and by-products of culture and creativity in terms of intangible assets, which are fundamental for an inclusive and sustainable development.
Unstable occupations, multi-jobholding combination of multiple occupationsfreelancer temporary contracts that often do not include social security and suitable guarantees, seriously question the monolithic vision of the so-called creative class as an agent of change and sustainable development Jayne Given the complexity and seriousness of the environmental, employment and social situation, in Taranto there is a multilevel attention involving several institutions and administrations from local to national scale.
Given the severe situation and the interwoven issues affecting Taranto, the research design followed a grounded theory approach Glaser e Strauss meaning that the key issues orienting the investigation emerged discussing with local actors trough interviews and focus groups during the field visits that took place between March and May Enlarging the notion of creativity should also lead to overcome the idea that creative cities can be described in universal terms as a combination of factors replicable in different urban contexts Pratt It is worth remembering that Taranto has abdicated to be a cultural and tourist destination by entrusting the steel plant the leading role of the urban economy.
European Capitals of Culture: Residential and Industrial sites in the city of Taranto; Source: This means supporting an autonomous development of territories by enhancing their local resources and bottom up initiatives instead of launching programs detached from local needs and aspirations Borgomeo These needs are consistent with the findings stemming from the recent survey conducted by the Productive District Puglia Creativa through a work of territorial animation carried out in aiming at introducing associations, practitioners and small enterprises to the funding opportunities within the EU programming period and encouraging their participation DPPC A second important methodological issue, both in terms of analysis and policy, concerns the redistribution mechanisms of culture-driven economies.
Creative Economy Report The idea behind this measure was to support an autonomous development of territories by training young practitioners with a community-led approach that would act as agents of change able of carrying on local development projects. Undoubtedly, this is a valuable opportunity to try to consider culture as a key pillar of development strategies by acknowledging not only its economic impact, but also its contribution as far as innovation and social cohesion are concerned Clementi, Accordingly analysis at urban level can better investigate not only how cultural investments and policies works, but to whom and to what extent Evans The museum heritage of the city is also an untapped potential: The goal of JDC is to combine scientific research on the cetaceans in the Gulf of Taranto with dissemination activities contributing to environmental awareness raising among residents and tourists.
More recently, JDC has equipped with two catamarans with a specific technology for detecting dolphins in order to promote dolphins watching both as a tourist attraction and as a study activity bringing tourists and locals onboard. Only a small part of the urban historical heritage has been restored and opened.
This study aims at contributing to the debate on urban regeneration and villla processes of declining industrial areas by investigating the conditions fostering the emerging of new talents and forms of aggregation capable of carrying on durable initiatives. When a taaranto governance is involved, as in Taranto where urban decision making is intertwined with the regional and even national level, the sustainability of locally developed projects peogramma a higher institutional support, also known as up-scaling Garcia et al.
Cinema Arena Teatro Villa Peripato
The province of Taranto is the last one The second part introduces the case study of Taranto not only with respect to the industrial development, that has strongly affected the urban organization and the social fabric of this city, but also considering the institutional perspective hampering the elaboration of an alternative vision.
Instead it suggests an articulated territorial perspective to investigate context-dependent conditions for culture-based development. Moreover, for most of the buildings already rescued there is not an urban strategy establishing new uses coherent with a city enhancement vision. The author wish to thank the group of experts involved in the project and particularly Andrea Billi for coordinating the research activity and for useful comments on this contribution; Franco Milella for fruitful discussions on the Apulia creative system and Antonella Carella for valuable insights on the urban and social fabric of Taranto and its major changes.
In each region interested by the PON Cultura MiBACT selected some areas of cultural attraction as hot spots in which put particular effort to gain useful insights for better policies.
Cinema Arena Teatro Villa Peripato Taranto |
The translation of cultural sectors in NACE codes has produced four categories of activities: For this reason, we need a different approach to culture-driven urban phenomena, also supporting innovation processes within institutions themselves.
Relying on the concept of creative city to elaborate a new development model is highly risky Programmz e Paddison, if not aware that creativity does not develop through a predefined combination of factors.
Moreover, tarnto we examine the characteristics of these creative professions WIPOPratt,Hesmondhalgh e BakerMenger,Towse,Throsby,the picture is rather bleak. Anthony, the Roman Villa inside Peripato Gardens, the archaeological underground sites in the old town centre dating back to Magna Grecia. This analytical attitude must not lead to a trade-off between local and global or to a mono-causal viewpoint Sacco et al.
Examples drawn from Taranto suggest that the creative class is made not only of practitioners, but also of citizens reclaiming action spaces with initiatives improving the degree of social cohesion and the quality of life in neighborhoods and encouraging the development of skills and employment opportunities.
Different from institutional actors, the investigation on associations and voluntary sectors focused at the urban level given that a priority for the relaunch of Taranto as a cultural and tourist destination regards the enhancement of the old town center affected by years of decay, both material and social. The proposal presented by Jonian Dolphin Conservation in partnership with five more associations, aims at restoring Palazzo Amati to create an Euro-Mediterranean Centre of the sea and cetaceans to realize the tourist potential of Taranto old town.
Based on this assumption European policies have funded a number of initiatives supporting CCI, cultural routes, and capitals of Culture, among others, further fueling the belief that cities enhancing culture and creativity have more growth opportunities Miles and Paddison